Nari-Kunjar, a Unique Genre of Art

Nari-Kunjar a remarkably unique art genre which started trending amongst the Indian artists, starting early 17th century was a result of the influence of an art-style from Persia. The main composition of the artform is a framework of a Kunjar, a Sanskrit word, which means, the Elephant, within the shell, figures of women, nari, are artistically intertwined and seated in a creative manner. The figures are generally dancers, musicians or just a jubilant group of women. The creativity of the artist lies in the acrobatic postures used for the figures, their adjustment within the composition and their voluptuous form.

Shown below is a Persian (Left) and an Indian painting (right) of Composite elephant. Its evident, how much the Indo-Islamic artform influenced the Indian artstyle. The difference is the Persian painting is a Pashu-Kunjar (composite elephant made of animals) and the Indian style is Nari-Kunjar (composite made of women).

Composite Elephant, Persian painting, 1600 (circa)

 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 1800 (circa)

 

The composition typically followed a set pattern of nine women dressed ostentatiously. Four of the figures formed the beasts’s legs. The plait of one of the woman played the role of the elephant’s tail. The figure which served as the trunk, took the most difficult acrobatic posture. The tusks were generally formed by a figure carrying two similar items like swords or fans, depending on the subject of the painting.  The deity riding the elephant mostly carried an ankusha (elephant goad). The remaining female figures formed the back and the belly, one of whom would typically be playing an instrument called mridanga (double-headed drum).

Shown below is a Nari-kunjar painting from Rajasthan School, Sitting astride the elephant is Krishna, the gopi’s intertwined bodies form legs, body, and tusks of the elephant. The composition depicts the spiritual union of the gopi’s with their lord.

19th Century , The British Museum

 

These charmingly unusual compositions were a metaphorical depiction of different theories and philosophies. Paintings from Rajasthan school were mostly creative manifestations of the devotion and love of the gopi’s for their Lord Krishna. Mughal paintings depicted the splendor and flamboyance of the royal courts. The series created in South India depicted God of love Kama with his flashy attendants serving as a kunjar (Elephant), symbolizing the passion and romance associated with him.

Shown below is a Mughal painting, it illustrates a kingly figure riding an elephant formed by dancers and musicians, he is shown to control the beast with an elephant goad, and a woman behind him holds a fan over him. The painting is a symbolic demonstration of the pomp and show of the royal court.

Early 17th century, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

 

The Nari-kunjar shown below is delightfully intriguing and diverse from the rest, a cobra coiled around the legs of the dancer interestingly makes the trunk more comprehensive. Ducks are cleverly used by the artist to appear as shoes for the dancers serving as the legs of the elephant.

circa 1750, Sothebys collection

 

Lord Vishnu riding an elephant composed of female orchestra and acrobatic dancing girls.

1800 (circa), The British Museum

 

Manmatha or Kama Dev, the God of Love, mounted on an Elephant composed of nine women

1820 – 1825, Victoria and Albert Museum

 

Composite elephant made of beautiful Apsaras at a Vishnu temple in Tamil Nadu

 

A contemporary painting of Nari-Kunjar made by Baani Sekhon. Oil on canvas, Size- 30”x36” inches, 2017

For pricing, shipping, zoomed images or queries regarding similar artworks kindly mail at- ocherart@admin.com

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Masterpieces with Single Tree Composition

Fundamentally, all landscape paintings have a focal point, which draws the viewer’s eye to the heart of the paintings composition. For instance (as shown below), the cypress trees serve as the focal point in Vincent van Gogh’s painting ‘Wheat Field and Cypress Trees’, the sun in Claude Monet’s painting ‘Impression’ and the central tree in the painting ‘Banks of the Marne’ by Paul Cezanne.

But what if the composition of the painting comprises of a single tree, the focal point diminishes and the central figure is the lone subject of the painting. Which genre would the artwork fall under – Landscape, subject study or symbolic art? The theme sounds vague, boring and bland but surprisingly this rare composition has been captured beautifully by many master artists. We explore few such masterpieces that aesthetically illustrate this atypical theme.

The Mulberry Tree by Vincent van Gogh-
The isolated tree shown against a rocky terrain has its branches spread out with a blast of fiery colors. Vincent managed to create a magical autumn experience by means of just a single tree.

 

 

Rose bushes under the Trees by Gustav Klimt-
The canvas is like a confetti explosion of various shades of greens and yellows. Klimt’s unique composition of a single tree with rich foliage, depicted with tiny specks of brush strokes is one of his most popular masterpieces.

 

 

The Tree Series by Piet Mondrian-
The solitary trees in the series are depicted in their most basic and simplistic form, true to Mordrian’s art movement ‘De Stijl’ / ’The Style’. Cleverly angled brush strokes, and limited palette void of greens are the unique characteristics of this series.

 

 

The Bonaventure Pine by Paul Signac-
Painted in pointillism style a huge Umbrella Pine tree stretches across the canvas. The subdued background highlights the majestic form and the interesting shape of the tree. Following the pointillism technique of small dots applied in patterns, pixels of lighter tone sprinkled around the tree, suggest sunlight filtering through the leaves, adding a dreamy feel to the painting.

 

 

Autumn trees by Egon Schiele-
The bare lone trees made by the expressionist artists are metamorphic, the series deal with the themes related to death and rebirth. Grey palette, twisted trunk, cloudy sky and entwined branches are a compelling portrayal of a stormy winter, allegorical of misery and loneliness.

 

 

Pine Tree near Aix by Paul Cezanne-
The composition of this artwork differs from the rest, it’s unique and abstract, much like the other artworks of the post impressionist artist. The central figure (i.e. the pine tree) gets cut from all sides and is used as a frame for the painting. The mesh of the branches connecting the sides, combine all the elements to the center of the composition.

 

 

The Oak by Edvard Munch-
The artwork has an interesting color scheme, cool sky tones gradually descend to warm earthy color, diagonally from top left to bottom right. Though the color gradient of the tree is reflected on the background, yet Munch successively managed to highlight the tree as the central figure.

 

 

The Pink Peach Tree by Vincent Van Gogh-
The painting depicts a peach tree in bloom during springtime, despite being painted with subtle and pastel shades the artwork looks vibrant and spirited. The perspective exaggerated by the tapering flow of the brush strokes helps in highlighting the tree as the main subject.

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Th.V. Doesburg, Drei Haeuser by Juan Gris-
The abstract treatment represents the tree as a three-dimensional form viewed from a single perspective. The cubist artist’s composition despite its simplified geometric forms retains the look and feel of a landscape.

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Tree in flower near Vetheuil by Claude Monet-
The father of impressionism’s technique of capturing light and its effect on the color of the object is at play in this painting. The light and shade on the solitary tree are represented brilliantly with precise dabs and dashes of varied tones.

 

 

Little Oak Tree by Franz Marc-
The simplicity of the painting is reminiscent of ‘The Mulberry Tree’ by Vincent van Gogh (first painting on the top), spirals of fresh green leaves are highlighted by the brilliant blue sky and animated strokes of the ground.

 

 

The Fig Tree by Paul Klee-
The lone trees’ composition, monochromatic tones and the arrangement of the colored shapes reflect the artists experience in stain glass.

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L’Arbre (The Tree) by Pablo Picasso-
Picasso’s neutral colored artwork illustrates a stylized tree, with array of bold strokes and distorted shapes, the composition is compact with interlinked forms.

 

 

A Great Tree by  J. W. Turner-
The Watercolor artwork projects a powerful and majestic tree, the composition partly cuts the tree from the sides, highlighting the sunlit part of the tree as the focal point.

 

 

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Yoga: An Art Chronicled

Yoga, as we know it today, is practiced daily by millions of people though very few understand the essence of it. Dating back to the pre-vedic period, Yoga originally was a means of spiritually uniting one with the Divine, within oneself.

To achieve this harmony of mind and body, Yoga has seven primary schools of physical, mental and spiritual disciplines. Today, the Yoga we take pleasure in and identify the most with is Hatha Yoga, which is one of the seven paths, its primarily about physical discipline, the other forms include Raja, Gyana, Bhakti, Karma, Mantra and Tantra Yoga.

ascetic-practicing-yoga

Ascetic practicing various techniques of Yoga (1825)

 

Leaving aside the spiritual aspects of the practice let’s focus on how the physical path ‘Hatha Yoga’ which is most loved and practiced across the world was chronicled down the centuries with beautiful paintings, sculptors and illustrations. Starting from Veda’s, in the course of history there have been numerous textual manuals for Hatha Yoga, most comprehensive being- Hatha Yoga Pradipika and Shiva Samhita. However, unquestionably, humans are visual creatures, illustrative documentation of Yoga was inevitable. Starting 16th century, the visual recording of Hatha Yoga gave result to remarkable artworks.

Bahr al-hayat or Ocean of Life (16th-century)- is the earliest known encyclopedic manuscript with brilliantly illustrated Asanas accompanied with detailed descriptions. Commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir the creative piece was composed by Sufi master Muhammad Ghawth and illustrated by renowned artist Govardhan. The Sufi masters’ motive was to teach his disciples Hath Yoga to gain meditative power. The artworks depict ash-smeared Yogi’s in various postures complemented with scenic backgrounds and detailed items used by the Yogi’s in their daily life. The miniature drawings follow a subdued palette highlighting the pensive mood and austerities of a Yogic life.

Shown below are few leafs from the manuscript

khecari-and-sthamba-mudra

Khecari and Sthamba Mudra

nad-and-sunasana-mudra

Nad and Sunasana Mudra

uttanakurmasana_akunchan-mudra

Uttanakurmasana and Akunchan Mudra

 

Miniature paintings (17th century)- A rich collection of Miniature paintings of Asana’s based on Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a classic Sanskrit manual on Hatha Yoga. This brilliantly colored manual is graphically impressive with accurate postures paired with well-defined angles.

Shown below are few paintings from the collection

miniature-painting-of_hatha-yoga

miniature-painting_of-hatha-yoga

miniature-painting-of-hatha-yoga

 

Miniature Pahari painting (17th century)- Saptarishi (sons of Brahma) shown in different Yogic postures. Legend has it that Lord Shiva shared his knowledge of Yogic science with seven distinguished rishi’s and laid different characteristics of Yoga into each one of them, these aspects became the seven basic forms of Yoga. Even today, Yoga maintains these seven distinct forms.

the-seven-rishis-saptarishi-indian-miniature-painting

 

Watercolour on paper (17th century)- Lord Shiva, the Adiyogi or the first Yogi, regarded as the founder of Yoga is shown seated in Eight Yogic Postures on a tiger skin, against a green background. Painted in opaque watercolors on paper, the artwork projects a meditative and serene feel.

shiva-in-eight-yogic-postures

 

Murals in the Dalai Lamas’ private meditation temple (17th century): The details of a brilliantly colored and animated mural in the Lukhang temple, or “Temple of the Water Spirits” located in Lhasa, portrays Yogis in 23 Yoga positions with brief description, titled “The Secret Keys of the Channels and Winds.” The temple was a secret space created by the fifth Dalai Lama in the 17th century – and reserved for the private meditation for his successors.

hatha-yoga-murals-in-dalai-lamas-temple

Images copyright- Thomas Laird (Source- hyperallergic.com)

 

Engravings by Mrs. Belnos (1832): Hand-colored engravings by Mrs. Belnos are believed to be the earliest visual record of Yogic practice’s followed during colonial India. The series of twenty-four graphic plates were prepared by author Mrs. Belnos’s French lithographer husband J.J. Belnos. The intricate drawings demonstrate different signs and postures performed during morning devotional ceremonies.

mrs-belnos_engravings_of-pranayama

mrs-belnos_engravings-on-yoga

 

Sritattvanidhi (19th century): An ancient Kannada treatise, “The Illustrious Treasure of Realities” has one of its sections that includes instructions and illustrations of 122 postures, making it by far the most elaborate visual text on Asanas in existence before the twentieth century.

sritattvanidhi

Image source: fearless.yoga

 

Sculptors, Murals and Frescos of Yogi’s and Yogini’s, richly adorn the Indian historical temples, these ancient artworks narrate mythological scenes and symbolic themes from sacred texts like Vedas and Upanishads.

Yoga-Narasiṃha, a man lion, is one of the several forms of Vishnu’s incarnation where he appears sitting cross-legged in a Yogic posture. On the request of his devotee, Prahlada, He took this Yoga form to calm the heat emanating from Him. This avatar of Lord Vishnu has been one of the favorite subjects for the artworks in ancient South Indian temples.

Yoga Narasiṁha form at a temple in Vijayanagara, Hampi (13th and 17th centuries) is the most creatively striking art-piece amongst them all.

yoga-narasi%e1%b9%81ha-form-at-a-temple-in-vijayanagara-hampi

 

Temple Nataraj (Chola Era 10th-12th centuries) is where Sage Patanjali wrote Yoga Sutras. The temple hosts carvings, sculpture and other allied arts of Yogi’s and Yogini’s in different Hath Yoga postures.

yogi-and-yogini-in-temple-nataraj

Image source: 10000yearsblog.wordpress

 

An ancient sculpture of Patanjali depicted in half-man, half-serpent form, signifying his enlightenment. In Yogic science a snake is symbolic of kundalini energy.

sage-patanjali

 

Srirangam Temple (6th to 9th centuries AD): Bas reliefs depicting Yogi’s performing various Hatha Yoga Asanas.

Shown below are ‘Tree posture’ (Vrksa Asana) and ‘Bhujapid Asana’.

srirangam-temple_vrksa-and-bhujapid-asana

Image copyright (rt): Rob Linrothe, (Left) mahavidya.ca

 

Jambukeswaram temple (2nd century AD) Shown below are some Hatha Yoga reliefs carved on pillars and walls of the temple.

hatha-yoga-reliefs-in-jambukeswaram-temple

Image copyright: Hari Prasad Nadig

 

Ranganathaswamy Temple (6th to 9th centuries AD): Stone carvings of Yoga Asanas.

hatha-yoga-stone-carvings-in-ranganathaswamy-temple

Image copyright: Nicolas Mirguet

 

Mahabalipuram: Ancient stone carving of Vrks Asana

stone-carving-of-vrksasana

Image copyright: Linda-Sama

 

Yoga Guru Shobhna Juneja, elaborates on the powerful connection between ‘Art’ and ‘Yoga’.

sobhna_yoga-guru_The system of Yoga is so vast and generous that deriving creative expression from it is natural for the artists. Although the yoga discipline is strictly an internal experience but sometimes yogis creatively ‘digress’ from it and start enjoying the artful dimensions of yoga mudras. No wonder then we see yoga as artful and glossy.

Yoga has been preserved through Guru Parampara (from Guru Lineage) whereas artworks inspired by Yoga have ‘glorified’ this ancient inner science (yoga). More so, if one sees these masterpieces, one wonders that ‘Yoga is beautiful’ and it’s a path to ‘Pure Love and Liberation.”

 

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When Art inspired Art

It has been a common practice for artists to replicate the composition of the paintings made by their favorite master artists.  These replicas have been a result of sincere admiration and genuine inspiration. We have listed few such reproduced artworks that have been created with similar theme as the original masterpiece but yet each the copied painting retains its own uniqueness made with fresh creativity.

Vincent van Gogh made over 30 copies of artworks made by his favorite artists- Delacroix, Jean-Francois Millet and Rembrandt. These replicas are not ‘plagiarized ideas’, he reproduced the paintings infusing his own originality with new art techniques and symbolism.

Noon Rest from Work by Jean-Francois Millet (Original)

noon-rest-from-work_millet-inspired-van-gogh

 

Noon – Rest from Work by Vincent van Gogh

noon-rest-from-work_van-gogh-inspired-by-millet

 

‘Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn’, a painting made by Raphael was inspired by the ‘Mona Lisa’, painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The landscape in the background, three-quarter cut of the portrait and the subjects pose, clearly takes on the composition of the masterpiece made by Leonardo da Vinci. However Raphael’s model has naivety and innocence in contrast to the mysterious Mona Lisa.

Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci (Original)

leonardo-inspired-raphael_mona-lisa

 

Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn by Raphael

leonardo-inspired-raphael_young-woman-with-unicorn

 

Silk-screen prints of Kate Moss by the British artist Banksy are reminiscent of Andy Warhol’s portraits of Marilyn Monroe. The graffiti artist has given a contemporary makeover to the classic masterpiece with superimposed hairstyle and vibrant backgrounds.

Andy Warhol’s portraits of Marilyn Monroe (Original)

banksy-inspired-by-andy-warhol_marilyn-monroe

 

Banksy’s portraits of Kate Moss

banksy-inspired-by-andy-warhol_kate-moss

 

‘The Balcony’ a painting by Edouard Manet was inspired by ‘The Majas at the balcony’ made by Francisco Goya. Manet applied an interesting color contrast, the three models are Manet’s friends shown in a casual setting. Goya’s theme on the other hand is rather tense, two elegant women are watched over by hostile male figures in the background.

‘The Majas at the balcony’ made by Francisco Goya (Original)

goya-inspired-manet_majas-on-balcony

 

‘The Balcony’ a painting by Edouard Manet

goya-inspired-manet_the_balcony

 

‘Women of Algiers in their Apartment’ is a depiction of a Muslim harem, the painting was created after Eugene Delacroix’s visit to Morocco. The artist was captivated by the Oriental culture, brightly colored flowing costumes, Caravans, Veiled women, and Erotic Harems. In homage to this artwork, Pierre-Auguste Renoir created ‘Parisian Women in Algerian Costume (The Harem). Later Picasso in his cubist style made a series of 15 paintings inspired by Delacroix’s masterpiece.

‘Women of Algiers in their Apartment’ by Eugene Delacroix’s (Original)

delacroix-inspired-renoir_womenofalgiers

 

‘Parisian Women in Algerian Costume’ by Renoir

delacroix-inspired-renoir_the-harem

 

Women of Algiers by Picasso

delacroix-inspired-picasso_les-femmes-dalger

 

Taking inspired from the composition of ‘The Pastoral Concert’ made by Titan, Edouard Manet painted ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’. Unlike Titan’s mythological theme, Manet’s painting had a contemporary setting. In that era, the art critics considered Manet’s painting obscene, lacking any mythological theme or allegorical precedent a nude and a scantily dressed female along with two fully cloth men in an urban setting couldn’t be passed off as a respectable subject. Claude Monet further inspired by Manet’s painting made his own version of ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’.  James Tissot’s version ‘The Foursome’ was more animated but it was much tamer and sober.

‘The Pastoral Concert’ made by Titan (Original)

titan-inspired-manet_pastoral-concert

 

‘The Luncheon on the Grass’ by Edouard Manet

manet-inspired-tissot-and-monet_luncheonon-the-grass

 

‘The Luncheon on the Grass’ by Claude Monet

manet-inspired-tissot-and-monet_dejeunersurlherbe

 

The Foursome by James Tissot

manet-inspired-tissot-and-monet_la_partie_carree

 

The composition of ‘Bedroom at Arles’ painted by Roy Lichtenstein is an exact replica of Vincent van Gogh’s painting of the same title. The technique is what gives the Pop artists painting its originality.

‘Bedroom at Arles’ by Vincent van Gogh (Original)

bedroom-in-arles_van-gogh-inspired-lichtenstein

 

‘Bedroom at Arles’ by Roy Lichtenstein

bedroom-in-arles_lichtenstein-inspired-by-van-gogh

 

‘The Third of May 1808’ is a painting made by Spanish artist Francisco Goya to honor Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s armies. The artwork inspired Edouard Manet’s painting ‘Execution of Emperor Maximilian’ and Pablo Picassos masterpiece ‘Guernica’. Manet’s painting portrays the execution of the Emperor of Mexico and ‘Guernica’ is and anti-war painting made by Picasso depicting the aftermath of the Nazi German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

‘The Third of May 1808’ by Francisco Goya (Original)

goya-inspired-manet-and-picasso_the-third-of-may-1808

 

‘Execution of Emperor Maximilian’ by Edouard Manet

goya-inspired-manet-and-picasso_the-execution-of-emperor-maximilian

 

‘Guernica’ by Picasso

guernica

 

The Card Players is a series of oil paintings made by Post-Impressionist artist Paul Cezanne, depicting peasants engrossed in their pipes and playing cards. Cezanne gained inspiration from the painting ‘The Card Players’ made by one of the Le Nain brothers. While the original is highly animated and has a lot of drama, farmers in Cezanne’s artwork are calm and intensely focused on their game.

‘The Card Players’ by the Le Nain brothers (Original)

the-card-players_le-nain-brothers-inspired-cezanne

 

‘The Card Players’ by Paul Cezanne

the card players 25x33

 

Johannes Vermeer’s painting ‘The Art of Painting’ is in fact a self portrait, the artist has his back towards the viewer. Perfectly balanced composition, flawless lighting and remarkably realistic technique makes this masterpiece artwork one of the finest creation made by the artist. Salvador Dali revered Vermeer, ‘The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table’ is a surrealistic painting made by him in reference to Vermeer’s appearance in his popular painting ‘The Art of Painting’.

‘The Art of Painting’ by Johannes Vermeer (Original)

vermeer-inspired-dali_the-art-of-painting

 

‘The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table’ by Dali

vermeer-inspired-dali_the-ghost-of-vermeer

 

‘Woman with a Parasol’ (Mrs. Monet and their son) was painted by Claude Monet in a single session probably within few hours, the impulsiveness is clearly visible with the bold and dynamic strokes of multiple shades. Upwards perspective, windy atmosphere and the juxtaposition of Mrs Monet with her partly visible son, adds a sense of amazing depth. Inspired by this remarkable artwork, American artist John Singer Sargent, painted ‘Two Girls with Parasols’, the theme and feel of the painting is similar, it depicts a relaxed and casual outing on a sunny, fair weather day.

‘Woman with a Parasol’ by Claude Monet (Original)

A11193.jpg

 

‘Two Girls with Parasols’ by John Singer Sargent

monet-inspired-sargent_two-girls-with-parasols

 

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10 Legendary Muses in Art History

For centuries, in the history of art many master artists captivated by heir muses have created remarkable masterpieces. The magnetic force of the muse has proved to expand the mesmerized artists’ creativity. It’s interesting how the intensity and nature of muse-artist relationship clearly reflects on the artworks. We have featured some of the most popular muses’ who have been responsible for inspiring renowned artists’ in creating highly creative and incredible paintings.

Emilie Louise Flöge an Austrian fashion designer and successful businesswoman made a lasting impression on the symbolist painter Gustav Klimt. A creative, free-spirited and an accomplished woman, who led a bohemian life style had much in common with the artist. She is known to be his life companion, in his final moments Klimt’s last words were “Get Emilie”. She modeled for his paintings, designed attires for the figures in his artworks and greatly influenced the decorative patterns of his paintings.

emilie-louise-floge_gustav-klimt

 

Gala Dalí, a powerful inspiration for her husband Salvador Dalí, was also a muse for many other writers and artists of her time. She modeled for some of the best known paintings and sculptures created by her husband. The surrealist painter was so enamored by his wife that eventually he started signing his paintings with his and her name. He stated “(i)t is mostly with your blood, Gala, that I paint my pictures”.

gala-salvador-dali

Galaofspheres

 

Lydia Corbett was an inspiration that lead Pablo Picasso into creating 60+ remarkable artworks. She was a charming 19-year-old at the time she met the artist, she tied her blonde hair in a typical high ponytail fashion with fringes. At the first meeting itself he was taken by her youthfulness, innocence and her timid nature. Art historians have termed this phase of Picasso’s art as his ‘Ponytail Period’ and the artworks as ‘Sylvette series’ (Lydia was then called Sylvette). Lydia Corbett is an artist in her own right who has held numerous successful exhibitions of her remarkable artworks.

lydia-corbett-sylvette_pablo-picasso

 

George Dyer was a petty criminal when he met British painter Francis Bacon. It is said that Dyer was caught by Bacon conducting burglary into the artist’s apartment. Bacon latter stated that he was attracted to Dyer’s helplessness and immaturity, Dyer on the other hand was awe-struck by the artist’s intellect and self-confidence. Their fiery and passionate relationship led the artist to create some of his most original and creative portraits and artworks.

george-dyer_francis-bacon

 

Victorine Meurent modeled for many impressionist artists however she was predominantly featured in most of the masterpieces made by Edouard Manet. The artist is said to have been charmed by her when he first saw Meurent in the street carrying her guitar, she use to play the instrument in café-concerts. ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’ and ‘Olympia’ (Shown below) are the two most popular artworks that feature her nude portrayal. An accomplished artist herself, she regularly exhibited at the prestigious Paris Salon.

olympia_victorine-meurent_edouard-manet

 

Saskia van Uylenburgh, wife of painter Rembrandt van Rijn served as his muse for numerous masterpieces. The artists featured her in many of his mythical, biblical and historical themed artworks and painted numerous portraits of her. Saskia died after giving birth to their fourth child Titus’s, most likely from tuberculosis. There’s a collection of touching artworks which he lovingly created of her while she was sick on her death bed.

saskia-van-uylenburgh_rembrandt

 

Camille Monet, wife and muse of French painter ClaudeMonet has been featured in number of his masterpieces. ‘The Woman in the Green Dress’, which earned Monet critical acclaim at the Paris salon, is the most popular painting which features her as a subject. Besides being Monet’s muse, she also modeled for other known Impressionist artists, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Edouard Manet. Tragically, Camille died very young due to pelvic cancer, grief-stricken Monet made numerous intense and expressive paintings of his dead wife.
camille-claude-monet

 

Elizabeth Siddal, a talented artist herself, inspired her husband Dante Gabriel Rossetti and other artists of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. She has been the central subject of Rossetti’s symbolic and mythological paintings and drawings which have been said to amount in thousands. Rossetti represented Siddal as Dante’s Beatrice in one of his most famous works, Beata Beatrix. While posing for artist John Everett Millais’ ‘Ophelia’ (Shown below) in 1852, Siddal floated in a bathtub full of water to represent the drowning Ophelia. Millais painted daily into the winter putting lamps under the tub to warm the water.

ophelia_elizabeth-siddal_john-everett-millais

elizabeth-siddal_dante-gabriel-rossetti

 

Frida Kahlo once stated “I am my own muse, I am the subject I know best. The subject I want to know better.” In her life-time Frida Kahlo created 55 self-portraits. The experience of excruciating physical pain (due to a childhood accident) and emotional turmoil owing to her tumultuous personal life is characteristically represented by her in her self-portraits.

Self Portrait Frida Kahlo

 

Camille Claudel, a famed French sculptor started her relationship with artist Auguste Rodin as his pupil eventually became his companion and inspiration. Quoted as a ‘woman genius’ by the art critics, she not only played the role of a muse but also influenced sculptor Auguste Rodin’s art style. Interestingly, their turbulent and passionate relationship echo’s on both, Rodin’s and Claudel’s artworks.

camille-claudel_auguste-rodin

Artists of the Wild West

The ‘American Frontier’ which is popularly dubbed as ‘The Wild West’, has long been romanticized in literature, fine arts and other media’s. Adventurous cowboys, western landscapes, American Indian warriors and similar intriguing subjects have served as inspirations for many Hollywood movies, books and artworks. In the fine arts arena, romanticized paintings of three of the most popular American frontier painters- Frederic Remington, Charles M. Russell and Charles Schreyvogel catered to these tales and fantasies of the old west.

A Dash for the Timber by Frederic Remington


Frederic Remington
was the most influential artist of them, Charles Russell and Charles Schreyvogel were known as members of the “School of Remington”. Their art-style was realistic with a touch of impressionism, figures were the foremost focus of their paintings, landscape was just used as a supporting element to heighten the ‘Wild West Experience’ and the theme always had a unspoken fictional story.

Smoke of a .45 by Charles Marion Russell

 


Frederic Remington 1861-1909
Iconic paintings, detailed illustrations and life-like sculptures of Frederic Remington have been used as references for many Hollywood movies and popular books. His action-packed artworks were based on his authentic artifacts collection, personal photographs and notes taken during his visits to the west as artist-correspondent for Harper’s Weekly magazine.

Episode of the Buffalo Gun by Frederic Remington


Fight for the Waterhole by Frederic Remington

Even though the art style followed by Remigton was realism, the technique of mixing the colors was sketchy. For shading, instead of merging tones he used numerous rapid strokes of different colors.

Unlike his other contemporaries, Frederic Remington color palette was often experimental and innovative. The tone of the shades was mostly pastel based on his first-hand observation and notes.

A New Year on the Cimarron by Frederic Remington


On the Southern Plains by Frederic Remington


The Smoke Signal by Frederic Remington


The Outlier by Frederic Remington

 


Charles Russell 1864-1926
Nicknamed ‘the cowboy artist’, Charles Russell started as a watercolourist, he documented the ranch he worked for in Montana with his artworks. His career as an artist started when he mailed postcard-sized watercolors to the owner of the ranch in response to his query as to how the cattle herd had weathered the winter. Circulated amongst the social circle by the ranch owner the artists artwork received much appreciation thereafter he was flooded with orders and commissions.

The Tenderfoot by Charles Russell


Indian Braves by Charles M. Russell

Charles wife Nancy Russell is often given the credit for his international fame, she organized numerous exhibitions for him throughout the United States and in London, creating an international market for his artworks. Charles used the landscape as a tool to highlight and add depth to the mood of his paintings.

Buffalo Hunt by Charles M. Russell


The Signal Fire by Charles M. Russell


A bad hoss by Charles Russell


Watching the Iron Horse by Charles Russell


Charles Schreyvogel 1861-1912

In comparison to his contemporaries, Charles Schreyvogels’ paintings had more drama and excitement, he mostly captured the violent conflicts of cavalry troops and American Indians. Enamored by a Wild West show called ‘Cody’s Wild West extravaganza’, the self-taught artist decided to theme all his paintings on the frontier and Indian War. He toured Colorado and an Arizona to observe the military life, interview soldiers and sketched the landscapes.

In Hot Pursuit by Charles Schreyvogel

 

He gained instant fame after he won the Thomas Clarke Prize at the annual exhibition of the National Academy of Design for his painting ‘My Bunkie’ (Shown Below)

 

Click to view Canvas Prints of Western Artists Charles Russell, Frederic Remington and Charles Schreyvogel

Vintage Posters as Art Form

The craze for posters started in the late 19th century, as an avant-garde mode of mass communication. Revolutionary changes in print media especially the evolution of color lithography, made bulk production of print material inexpensive and convenient for advertising. Possibility of colored posters got Master Artists like Toulouse-Lautrec, Alphonse Mucha, Ramon Casas and Théophile Steinlen interested in poster designing. Today these vintage posters created by Art Nouveau Artists are used as art forms by interior designers, treasured by art collectors and revered as prototypes in the advertising world.

Veteran poster artists like Toulouse-Lautrec and Jules Chéret mostly captured the zealous night life of cabarets, music halls, and theaters of Moulin Rouge.  Posters on similar themes are most suitable for bringing in color, distinction and individuality to the interiors. These dazzling masterpieces can be used very flexibly, following the right size and placement they can serve as contrasting element for a neutral setting or as a relief for a colorful space.

‘Divan Japonais’ poster designed by Toulouse-Lautrec, adds sophistication and class to a neutral setting

Image- thedesignchaser.com

Theatre de L’Opera poster design by Jules Chéret, adds vibrancy to a concrete space

Image- thedesignfiles.net

‘Ambassadeurs’ poster designed by Toulouse-Lautrec

 

‘The Englishman at the Moulin Rouge’ designed by Toulouse-Lautrec

 

Ramon Casas, one of the most eminent Spanish artist and a graphic designer, his poster’s had a unique character and style. His figurative themes and fragmentary coloring were progressive and in-line with the art movement known as modernism. Sketchy and rough posters have this unique ability to enhancing the theme of a vintage interior at the same time if used for a contemporary space they compliment the modern look.

‘4 Gats’ poster designed by Ramon Casas, boosts a vintage setting

Image- delightfull.eu

Poster design by Ramon Casas, adds character to a contemporary space

Image- stadshem.se

 

‘Automobile’ by Ramon Casas

 

‘Tandem’ by Ramon Casas

 

‘Female figure in red’ and ‘Celebrations in Toulon’ by Ramon Casas

 

Alphonse Mucha, defined Art Nouveau style in most creative manner, his distinct style is now dubbed as ‘le Style Mucha’. Decorative and free flowing posters of similar style make an impressive visual statement. The Eye-catching masterpieces add style, sophistication and a unique sense of individuality to an elegant setting.

‘Reverie’ by Alphonse Mucha, effortlessly adds style and class to a room

Image- elledecoration.com

Poster design for JOB Cigarettes by Alphonse Mucha, enhances the urban elements of the interior

Image- thedesignfiles.net

‘The Four Seasons’ by Alphonse Mucha

 

Art Nouveau painter and printmaker Théophile Steinlens’ poster for ‘Le Chat Noir’ has become a powerful icon for poster designing. It fulfills all five characteristics of a good poster- Easy to Read, Simple and Crisp Layout, Appropriated Visual, Attracts Attention and Contrasting Colors. Iconic posters are exceptional in the sense that they are instantly recognized as a collectible, effortlessly taking the center stage of the space.

The quintessential Poster design ‘Tour of Rodolphe Salis’ Le Chat Noir by Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen adds value to a space

 

 Image- chezviviane.com

The Iconic poster ‘Cigarrillos Paris’ designed by Aleardo Villa

 

One of the most popular Poster Ad for Absinthe by Henri Privat-Livemont

Top 10 Biopic Movies of Artists

Frida (2002), a biopic drama film of the celebrated Mexican artist Frida Khalo, played and produced by Salma Hayek. The bold and free-spirited artists’ life has been illustrated starting from her tragic childhood accident, tumultuous relationship with her husband/artist Diego Rivera to her worldwide achievements in the art scenario. The movie was has been adapted from the book Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo by Hayden Herrera.

Casting- Salma Hayek, Alfred Molina, Ashley Judd
Directed by- Julie Taymor

Frida_

Salma Hayek as Frida Khalo, shown here painting her popular self portrait titled ‘The Broken Column

Frida

 

Mr. Turner (2014) the movie projects the latter half of the eccentric, British painter J.M.W. Turner’s life and career. The film highlights the artist’s obsession with seascapes, the warm relationship he shared with his father and the admiration he won of his patrons and contemporaries. Timothy Spall plays the role of the artist in all honesty as an uncouth, flawed individual and a romanticist who explores the relationship between God and mankind.

Casting- Timothy Spall, Dorothy Atkinson, Marion Bailey, Paul Jesson
Directed by- Mike Leigh

Mr. Turner

Timothy Spall as J. W. Turner, shown here with the artists masterpiece artwork ‘The Harbor of Dieppe’

Mr Turner

 

Lust for Life (1956), one of the most popular biographical film, it’s about the life of the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh. The artists’ role played by Kirk Douglas is considered to be his careers best performance. The film marvelously illustrates Vincent’s disastrous personal relationships, fiercely strong bond with his beloved brother Theo van Gogh, obsessive passion for art and his inner struggles as a tortured genius. The movie is based on the 1934 novel ‘Lust for Life’ by Irving Stone.

Casting- Kirk Douglas, Anthony Quinn, James Donald
Directed by- Vincente Minnelli

Lust for_Life

Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh, shown here painting the artists last artwork- ‘Wheatfield with crows’

Lust for Life

 

The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965) a biographical film of the renaissance master artist Michelangelo, mainly focusing on the difficulties and dilemmas he faced while painting the Sistine Chapel at the urging of Pope Julius II. A fitting cast of actors Charlton Heston as Michelangelo and Rex Harrison as Pope Julius II made the movie a classic piece. The movie is based on the book ‘The Agony and the Ecstasy’ by Irving Stone.

Casting- Charlton Heston, Rex Harrison, Alberto Lupo
Directed by- Carol Reed

The Agony_and the Ecstasy

Michelangelo played by Charlton Heston is shown here painting the Sistine Chapel.

The Agony and the Ecstasy

 

Modigliani (2004), biopic narrative of Italian painter and sculptor Amedeo Modigliani, spotlight of the movie is the artists’ rivalry with Pablo Picasso and his tragic romance with a beautiful Catholic girl Jeanne Hébuterne. The tear-jerking moments of the artists struggle for survival and his unconditional love for his muse and lover are profoundly moving. There is little fiction added to spice up the movie but that doesn’t stray the storyline from the actual events of the artists life. Andy Garcia’s performance as the title role is spectacular.

Casting- Andy García, Elsa Zylberstein
Directed by- Mick Davis

Modigliani

Andy Garcia as Modigliani with one of the artists painting.

Modigliani_

 

Pollock (2000), a film about the life and career of the expressionist painter Jackson Pollock, directed and played by Ed Harris. The story mainly focuses on the latter half of the artists’ life, how he gradually after decades of experience headed towards abstract expressionism and eventually his increasingly unstable nature, progressively deteriorated his career and personal life. Marcia Gay Harden’s remarkable acting as Pollock’s wife Lee Krasner, adds depth to the couple’s troubled relationship. The film is an adaption of the book ‘Jackson Pollock: An American Saga’.

Casting- Ed Harris, Marcia Gay Harden, Jennifer Connelly
Directed by- Ed Harris

Pollock

Ed Harris and Marcia Gay Harden as Pollock and his wife Lee Krasner.

POLLOCK, Marcia Gay Harden, Ed Harris, 2000

 

The Impressionists (2006) the docudrama is a biographical account of Impressionist artists- Claude Monet, Renoir, Degas, Édouard Manet, Cézanne and Bazille. The series depict how the founders of the art movement ‘Impressionism’ rejected the conventional rules of painting and created their own unique style, much to the annoyance of the traditionalist. The movie is based on documented letters and interviews of that era.

Casting- Julian Glover, Andrew Havill, Charlie Condou, Aden Gillett, Will Keene
Directed by- Tim Dunn

The Impressionists

Andrew Havill played the young Claude Monet, shown here painting the popular artwork- ‘Arrival of the Normandy Train’

The_Impressionists

 

Big Eyes (2014), is a biographical film of American artist Margaret Keane. Her unique styles of making figures (mainly children) with melancholic big eyes become commercially successful in the art market. The movie narrates how her husband Walter Keane took credit for her art as the creator of the paintings, eventually Margaret decides to reveal the truth and expose Walter as a fraud. The legal battle for reclaiming her name and her self-discovery are the highlights of the movie. Starring Amy Adams and Christoph Waltz and directed by Tim Burton, the movie is a must-see.

Casting- Amy Adams, Christoph Waltz
Directed by- Tim Burton

Big Eyes

Artist Margaret Keane and her husband Walter Keane played by Amy Adams and Christoph Waltz

Big-Eyes

 

Girl With a Pearl Earring (2003) The movie centers around the relationship of the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer and the model for his masterpiece painting ‘The Girl With a Pearl Earring’. The film events are mostly a work of fiction, as the model’s identity is still a mystery. In the film Grieta, played by Scarlett Johansson, is the model of the painting and a maid in the household of the artist Johannes Vermeer, played by British actor Colin Firth. The movie is an adaptation of a novel of the same name- ‘Girl With a Pearl Earring’ by Tracy Chevalier

Casting- Colin Firth, Scarlett Johansson
Directed by- Peter Webber

Girl with a-Pearl Earring

A scene from the movie, where the artist is shown helping his muse wear the pearl earring.

Girl with a Pearl Earring

 

Loving Vincent (2016) a spectacular animation film based on Vincent van Gogh’s life. The uniqueness of the movie is that each frame of the animation is a hand painted oil painting on canvas. There are 56,800 frames, the coloring and compositions are inspired by Vincent’s art style and paintings. Thirty painters have worked together to complete the 80-minute movie in two years. The movie is anticipated to have a Christmas release, based on the trailer and its groundbreaking technique without doubt it’s going to be a breakthrough film.

Directed by- Dorota Kobiela

Loving Vincent_

 

5 Misconceptions about Art for Small Apartments

Common belief is that small apartment’s face restrictions on the kind of art to be selected for the interiors. In truth, there are no hard and fast rules to be followed for the size, color, number or theme of the paintings for a residence short on space. If you want to personalize your home with artworks of your choice, just follow your heart. Compromising on art because of space issues is like killing the soul of your room. In fact, a skillful placement and a fitting selection can be smartly used to create an illusion of more space. We have pulled out few classic misconceptions people have for selecting art for their apartment-

Use Light Colored Artworks

‘Hang light colored paintings’, is a rule we are advised to follow for decorating a small room. A professional Interior designer would be willing to break this rule and yet be able to create a sense of space. Simply following subdued tones for a small space is boring, if you wish to hang a deep colored artwork, reflect the darker hues of the paintings on other accessories of the room and juxtaposition the light and dark tones of the room in a manner that adds depth to the space and enhances the neutral shades. Layering of colors adds dimension and makes the room look airy.

Colors from Degas painting ‘Dancers’ reflected on various accessories adds depths to the space.

Image- Margaret Donaldson Interiors

 

Darker tones of the painting ‘Turkish Soldiers Casting Bullets’ and other design elements enhances the lighter shades of the room.

Image- Better Homes and Gardens

 

Only use Small Artworks

Contrary to popular belief of using small artworks for an apartment that lacks space, a large artwork can be an innovate way of adding style and if selected dexterously it can create an illusion of a wider space. For a small room with poor lighting or a windowless space, a large landscape painting makes a lot of difference, it creates a feeling of wider space. Huge, bold and simple art prints which are not too busy or elaborate like abstract art, maps or vintage posters are few of the many tricks used by professional interior designers for adding an illusion of increased space in small apartments and flats.

The scenery ‘Rest along the Stream’ made by Alfred Sisley gives a fresh and airy feeling to the sitting arrangement.

Image source- Better Homes & Gardens

 

A huge map adds an impression of a wider space to a vintage setting.

Image source-  majestymaps.com

 

Picasso’s artwork ‘The Young Ladies of Avignon’ gives a relief to the colorful setting.

Image source-  sukio.com, Designed by Nick Olsen

 

Don’t use Busy or Multicolored Artworks

Another erroneous notion is that an intricate or busy artwork can get overpowering and swallow a lot of space. In fact an engaging painting, involuntarily becomes a focal point, causing a space diminishing effect making the surroundings seem more spacious. If we strike a right balance of size and distance with the other design elements, an intricate and detailed artwork can work wonders for a small space.

Orientalist Painting ’The Carpet Merchants’ made by Jean-Léon Gérôme gives a diminishing feeling to the space.

Image source-  veranda.com

 

Orientalist Painting ’The Dance’ made by Giulio Rosati takes the center stage, as a focal point.

Image source- oldbrandnew.com

The Tiger by Marc Franzis gives the receding effect to the space

Image source-  Better Homes and Gardens

 

Don’t Fill the Walls

Don’t let limited space be a deterrent for displaying your large art collection. Salon-style grouping is a perfect solution for displaying assembly of your exquisite artworks in the trendiest and refreshing manner. It accentuates the height of the ceiling making it seem taller and creates a cozy feeling. Composing salon-style wall is however a challenge, the theme, color palette, size, distance and framing are factors that need to be planned with utmost understanding. A flawed composition can ruin the display by making it look over whelming. Distance between each piece and aesthetic harmony are two main factors to be kept in mind for the composition.

Image source-  houzz.com

Image source-  Better Homes and Gardens

 

Fewer Artworks

For small apartments with heavy-duty and bulky furnishing, we are tempted to follow the rule ‘Lesser the better’ but as per a professional interior designer, fewer artworks is no solution for space issues, it will in no way make the room look any bigger. Instead bare walls would make the room lifeless like an empty shell. While you may not want an over whelming effect on every wall, there’s no harm done in putting up a selection of your favorites’ for personalizing your home, to suit your taste and style. However in this case, the trick is to use lighter and simpler design elements in the vicinity to retain the room’s spaciousness.

‘The Kiss’ by Gustav Klimt and other abstract Art Print’s work well with the light and restrained interior.

Image source-  Dona Rosene Interiors

 

Abstract artwork’s by Kazimir Malevich and Paul Klee despite the size retain the airy feeling of the space.

Image source-  architecturaldigest.com, designed by Christina Murphy

10 Masterpieces that have Transcended Time

Art is decidedly subjective, what might appeal to you may not have the same effect on someone else. For instance, personally, I favor artworks made during impressionism and post impressionism era. There are some who only like realistic art from renaissance period in contrast to a section of art enthusiasts who are fond of modern and contemporary art. Consequently, jotting down a set of ‘Best Artworks’, ‘Greatest Masterpieces’ or ‘Most Famous Paintings’ as such is near impossible. However we have list out 10 masterpieces which are considered most innovative and remarkably intriguing by majority of the art lovers, each made by a different master artist.

Starry night (1889- Post Impressionism), the masterpiece is believed to be a view from Vincent van Gogh’s room in an asylum at Saint-Remy. The upper half of the painting shows a vibrant sky bursting with energy, the turbulent swirls are in sharp contrast with the calm and sleepy village in the lower half of the painting. Based on Vincent’s religiously beliefs, art historians interpret that the cypress tree in the foreground symbolizes the unification of the world with the cosmos.


Impression- Sunrise
(1874- Impressionism), by Claude Monet was displayed in the first art exhibition held by then struggling artists- Manet, Renoir, Degas and Monet. Rebuffed by the art critics, they used the title of this painting to phrase the exhibition as “The Exhibition of the Impressionists” hence accidentally defining the new art movement. His technique of loose and short brushstrokes captured the essence of the Sunrise. The uniquely unfinished look of this artwork is what paved the way for the new art movement- Impressionism.


The Kiss
(1907- Symbolism) Gustav Klimt’s signature style of clubbing decorative patterns with semi- realistic figures has been best achieved in his celebrated artwork-‘The Kiss’.  The painting shows an entwined couple symbolizing love. The masculine geometric shapes on the man’s gown gradually merge in to the lady’s floral pattern symbolizing the couple’s passionate union as one. Further adding to this blissful union is the surreal dreamlike setting of shimmering gold plated background.


Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
(The Young Ladies of Avignon) (1907- Cubism) by Pablo Picasso is considered to be the prototype that shaped Cubism and Modern Art. The masterpiece projects the creative maturity achieved by Picasso over the years, a style that fermented over time through his various experiments and techniques. The painting portrays five female prostitutes from a brothel in Barcelona, with the simplistic and two-dimensional figures Picasso breaks the conventional rules of perspective and realism.


The Persistence of Memory
(1931- Surrealism) by Salvador Dalí, is widely believed to be the masterpiece that best defines the art movement ‘Surrealism’. The painting shows pocket watches melting against a barren backdrop. Composition is dreamlike and the execution is realistic, typical characteristics of a surrealistic painting, as stated by Dali himself “hand painted dream photographs”. The subject of the artwork is insignificance of time, the ants on the left suggest decaying and the distorted central form is often referred as a Self-portrait.


Mona Lisa
(1517- Renaissance) is undoubtedly the most popular portraits in the art world, the greatest creation of renaissance period and the finest masterpiece of Leonardo da Vinci. This accomplished portrait is most known for its captivating and mysterious half-smile, it’s been an ultimate source of inspiration for visual and literary arts.  Art expert’s latest belief has been that for the hopping smile, the genius artist, applied optical illusion called sfumato, generated by clever shading around the cheek bones and mouth.


Birth of Venus
(1480- Renaissance) by Sandro Botticelli, is one of the best representation of the origin of the ‘Goddess of love’, a common mythological subject of the Renaissance Period. The painting shows Venus, who has just risen from the sea on a shell, she is gently being blown towards the shore by the God of Wind. On the right, Hora the Goddess of Spring reaches out to cover her with a cloak. Her elegant posture and melancholic gaze makes Botticelli’s Venus look like a mystifying beauty.


The Girl with a Pearl Earring
(1665- Baroque), often referred as ‘The Dutch Mona Lisa’ is one of the most notable painting made by Johannes Vermeer.  The expressions and pose of the subject makes it incredibly interactive. The startled, wide-eyed subject looks back at the viewer with an exceedingly engaging half smile much like Leonard’s Mona Lisa, it seems that the viewer has managed to catch her attention causing her to pause and gaze back over her shoulder.


Dance at le Moulin de la Galette
(1876- Impressionism) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir- The artwork shows, couples dancing in the open-air dance hall and a café on a Sunday afternoon. The joyful ambiance fashioned by Renoir reflects the typical life style of the Parisians. The figures have soft contours, mildly blending with each other, adding a dreamy feel to the painting. The entire canvas is covered with spots of light and shadow, suggesting sunlight filtering through the trees, adding a gleaming summery experience to the scenario.


The Fighting Temeraire
(1838- Romanticism), a seascape made by J. W. Turner, is known for its dramatic play of sunlight and its spectacular theme. The 998-gun ship, played an important role in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in the seascape it is being towed away by a steamer to be broken up for scrap. The theme is a salute to the passing of the majestic ship, decolorized and faded it seems a thing of the past. For the sunset, Turner used the technique of glazing over impasto, captures the spirit of the moment in the most magnificent manner.